McMillan , Edwin Mattison

McMillan , Edwin Mattison
(1907–1991) American physicist
Born in Redonda Beach, California, McMillan was educated at the California Institute of Technology and at Princeton, where he obtained his PhD in 1932. He took up an appointment at the University of California at Berkeley in 1935, being made professor of physics in 1946 and director of the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory in 1958, posts he held until his retirement in 1973.
In 1940 McMillan and Philip Abelson announced the discovery of the first element heavier than uranium. The new element had a mass number 93 and a relative atomic mass of 239. It was named neptunium after the planet Neptune, just as 150 years earlier Martin Klaproth had named uranium after the planet Uranus. McMillan also suspected the existence of element 94 and in the same year was proved right by the discovery of the new element (plutonium) by Glenn Seaborg with whom he was to share the 1951 Nobel Prize for chemistry. The new elements were produced when uranium was bombarded with neutrons and were detected by virtue of their characteristic half-life.
McMillan also made a major advance in the development of Ernest Lawrence's cyclotron, which, in the early 1940s, had run up against a theoretical limit. Lawrence found that as his particles accelerated beyond a certain point their increase in mass, as predicted by Einstein's theory of relativity, was putting them out of phase with the electric impulse they were supposed to receive inside the cyclotron.
In 1945 McMillan proposed a neat solution in the synchrocyclotron (also independently suggested by Vladimir Veksler) in which the fixed frequency of the cyclotron was abandoned. The variable frequency of the synchrocyclotron could thus be adjusted to correspond to the relativistic mass gain of the accelerating particles and once more get into phase with them. In this way accelerators could be built that were forty times more powerful than Lawrence's most advanced cyclotron.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • McMillan,Edwin Mattison — Mc·Mil·lan (mĭk mĭlʹən), Edwin Mattison. 1907 1991. American physicist and chemist. He shared a 1951 Nobel Prize for the discovery of neptunium (1940). * * * …   Universalium

  • McMillan, Edwin Mattison — ▪ American physicist born Sept. 18, 1907, Redondo Beach, Calif., U.S. died Sept. 7, 1991, El Cerrito, Calif.       American nuclear physicist who shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1951 with Glenn T. Seaborg (Seaborg, Glenn T.) for his… …   Universalium

  • McMillan, Edwin Mattison — ► (1907 91) Físico estadounidense. Fue premio Nobel de Química en 1951, compartido con Seaborg, por sus trabajos sobre elementos transuránicos y el descubrimiento del plutonio y el neptunio …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Edwin Mattison McMillan — Edwin McMillan Pour les articles homonymes, voir McMillan. Edwin Mattison McMillan (18 septembre 1907 – 7 septembre 1991) fut le premier scientifique à obtenir un élément transuranien. Il est né à Redondo Beach en Californie.… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Edwin Mattison McMillan — (* 18. September 1907 in Redondo Beach, Kalifornien; † 7. September 1991 in El Cerrito, Kalifornien) war ein US amerikanischer Physiker. 1951 wurde ihm zusammen mit Glenn Theodore Seaborg der Nobelpreis für Chemie verliehen. Leben McMillan, der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Edwin Mattison McMillan — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Edwin Mattison McMillan (Redondo Beach, EUA 1907 El Cerrito 1991) fue un químico y profesor universitario estadounidense galardonado con el Premio Nobel de Química del año 1951. Biografía Nació el 18 de septiembre de …   Wikipedia Español

  • McMillan — Edwin Mattison …   Scientists

  • McMillan — McMillan, Edwin Mattison …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Chemienobelpreis 1951: Edwin Mattison McMillan — Glenn Theodore Seaborg —   Die beiden Amerikaner erhielten den Nobelpreis für ihre Entdeckungen in der Chemie der Transurane.    Biografien   Edwin Mattison McMillan, * Redondo Beach (Kalifornien) 18. 9. 1907, ✝ El Cerrito (Kalifornien) 7. 9. 1991; ab 1936 Professor in …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Edwin McMillan — Edwin Mattison McMillan (* 18. September 1907 in Redondo Beach, Kalifornien; † 7. September 1991 in El Cerrito, Kalifornien) war ein amerikanischer Physiker. Er war der erste Wissenschaftler der ein Transuranelement künstlich herstellte, und zwar …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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