Francis , Thomas Jr.

Francis , Thomas Jr.
(1900–1969) American virologist
Francis, the son of a methodist clergyman from Gas City, Indiana, was educated at Allegheny College and Yale where he obtained his MD in 1925. He worked with the Rockefeller Institute from 1925 to 1938 and, after serving as professor and chairman of bacteriology at the New York University College of Medicine, moved to the University of Michigan in 1941 as professor of epidemiology, a post he retained until his death.
Francis became known to a wide public when, in 1954, he reported on the Salk polio vaccine trial. Before this however he had worked for over 20 years on the epidemiology of the influenza virus. The first such virus, the A-type, had been detected by Christopher Andrewes and his colleagues in 1933. In the following year Francis found a further strain of the A-type, the PR 8, present in the Puerto Rican epidemic of 1934. In 1940 he went on to detect a completely distinct type, B, with no immunological relationship to the A-type.
The US Army, fearful of a repeat of the 1918 flu epidemic, set up in 1941 a commission to develop a vaccine and asked Francis to be its chairman. By 1942 he was ready to vaccinate 8000 soldiers with his vaccine but, perversely, flu was scarce that year. It was not until 1943 that he was able to report that those vaccinated were 70% less likely to be hospitalized compared with the control group. This encouraged the army to vaccinate some 1,250,000 troops in 1947 but this time it disconcertingly seemed to offer no protection at all.
It soon became clear to Francis why the vaccine had failed – the arrival of a new strain of A-type virus, known as A1. Francis was thus able to present the dilemma facing flu epidemologists, namely that while it was certainly possible to develop a vaccine against flu it was more than likely that it would end up as a vaccine against yesterday's flu.

Scientists. . 2011.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Francis Thomas — (* 3. Februar 1799 im Frederick County, Maryland; † 22. Januar 1876 bei Frankville, Maryland) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker und von 1842 bis 1845 Gouverneur …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Francis Thomas — (February 3, 1799ndash January 22, 1876) was a Maryland politician who served as Governor of Maryland from 1842 1844. He also served as a United States Representative from Maryland, representing at separate times the fourth, fifth, sixth, and… …   Wikipedia

  • Francis Thomas Maloney — (* 31. März 1894 in Meriden, Connecticut; † 16. Januar 1945 ebd.) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker (Demokratische Partei), der den Bundesstaat Connecticut in beiden Kammern des …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Francis Thomas Gregory — (* 19. Oktober 1821 in Farnsfield, Nottinghamshire, Großbritannien; † 24. Oktober 1888 in Toowoomba, Queensland, Australien) war ein Entdeckungsreisender und Politiker in …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Francis Thomas Hurley — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Francis Thomas Hurley (nacido el 12 de enero de 1927) es un prelado estadounidense de la Iglesia Católica. Se desempeñó como Arzobispo de Anchorage de 1976 a 2001. Biografía Francis Hurley nació en San Francisco,… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Francis Thomas Hurley — (* 12. Januar 1927 in San Francisco) ist Alterzbischof von Anchorage. Leben Francis Thomas Hurley empfing am 16. Juni 1951 die Priesterweihe und wurde in den Klerus des Erzbistums San Francisco inkardiniert. Paul VI. ernannte ihn am 4. Februar… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Francis Thomas Gregory — (19 October 1821 – 24 October 1888) was an English born Australian explorer and politician. The younger brother of Augustus Gregory, he was born at Farnsfield, Nottingham, England. He was brought to Western Australia in 1829, entered the public… …   Wikipedia

  • Francis Thomas Bacon — OBE FRS (December 21,1904 at Ramsden Hall, Billericay, Essex, England ndash; May 24, 1992), was an English engineer who developed the first practical hydrogen oxygen fuel cell.He was a direct descendant of Sir Nicholas Bacon and was educated at… …   Wikipedia

  • Francis Thomas Bacon — (1904 1992) était un ingénieur britannique 1939 1953 : L’Anglais Francis T. Bacon fait progresser les générateurs chimiques d’électricité, qui permettent la réalisation du premier prototype industriel de puissance. Voir aussi Pile à… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Francis Thomas Hurley — infobox bishopstyles name=Francis Hurley dipstyle=The Most Reverend offstyle=Your Excellency relstyle=Monsignor deathstyle=not applicable |Francis Thomas Hurley (born January 12, 1927) is an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”