Carrel , Alexis

Carrel , Alexis
(1873–1944) French surgeon
Carrel received his medical degree from the university in his native city of Lyons in 1900. In 1902 he started to investigate techniques for joining (suturing) blood vessels end to end. He continued his work at the University of Chicago (1904) and later (1906) at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York. Carrel's techniques, which minimized tissue damage and infection and reduced the risk of blood clots, were a major advance in vascular surgery and paved the way for the replacement and transplantation of organs. In recognition of this work, Carrel was awarded the 1912 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine.
During World War I, Carrel served in the French army. With the chemist Henry Dakin, he devised the Carrel–Dakin antiseptic for deep wounds. Returning to the Rockefeller Institute after the war, Carrel turned his attention to methods of keeping tissues and organs alive outside the body. He maintained chick embryo heart tissue for many years on artificial nutrient solutions and with the aviator Charles Lindbergh he devised a so-called artificial heart that could pump physiological fluids through large organs, such as the heart or kidneys.
In Man, the Unknown (1935), Carrel published his controversial views about the possible role of science in organizing and improving society along rather authoritarian lines. During World War II he founded and directed the Carrel Foundation for the Study of Human Problems under the Vichy government, in Paris. Following the Allied liberation, Carrel faced charges of collaboration but died before a trial was arranged.

Scientists. . 2011.

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • CARREL (ALEXIS) — CARREL ALEXIS (1873 1944) Chirurgien, sociologue et biologiste, qui a reçu en 1912 le prix Nobel de physiologie et de chirurgie physiologique pour la mise au point d’une méthode de suture des vaisseaux sanguins et qui jeta les premières bases des …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Carrel, Alexis — (1873 1944)    surgeon, physiologist, Nobel laureate    Born in Foy lès Lyon and educated at the university of lyon, Alexis Carrel, who did his research both in France and in the united states, was awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology in 1912… …   France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present

  • Carrel, Alexis — born June 28, 1873, Sainte Foy lès Lyon, Fra. died Nov. 5, 1944, Paris French surgeon, sociologist, and biologist. He received a 1912 Nobel Prize for developing a way to suture (stitch) blood vessels and laid the groundwork for further studies of …   Universalium

  • Carrel, Alexis — ► (1873 1944) Fisiólogo francés. Fue premio Nobel de Medicina y Fisiología en 1912. Realizó experimentos sobre los vasos sanguíneos y trasplante y conservación de tejidos vivos. * * * (28 jun. 1873, Sainte Foy lès Lyon, Francia–5 nov. 1944,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Carrel,Alexis — Car·rel (kə rĕlʹ, kărʹəl), Alexis. 1873 1944. French born American surgeon and biologist. He won a 1912 Nobel Prize for his work on vascular ligature and grafting of blood vessels and organs. * * * …   Universalium

  • Carrel — Carrel, Alexis …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Alexis Carrel — Nombre …   Wikipedia Español

  • Alexis Carrel — (* 28. Juni 1873 in Lyon, (Frankreich); † 5. November 1944 in Paris) war ein französischer Chirurg und erhielt 1912 den Nobelpreis für Medizin. Alexis Carrel konzentrierte sich vor allem auf die experimentelle …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Carrel — (Alexis) (1873 1944) physiologiste et chirurgien français; auteur de l Homme, cet inconnu (1936). P. Nobel 1912 …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Alexis Carrel — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Carrel. Alexis Carrel Alexis Carrel Naissance 28 juin …   Wikipédia en Français

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