Burbidge , Eleanor Margaret

Burbidge , Eleanor Margaret
(1922–) British astronomer
Born Margaret Peachey in Davenport, Burbidge studied physics at the University of London. After graduation in 1948 she joined the University of London Observatory where she obtained her PhD and served as acting director (1950–51). She then went to America as a research fellow, first at the Yerkes Observatory of the University of Chicago (1951–53) and then at the California Institute of Technology (1955–57). The period 1953–55 was spent in highly productive work at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge. She returned to Yerkes in 1957, serving as associate professor of astronomy from 1959 to 1962 and then transferred to the University of California, San Diego, where she was professor of astronomy from 1964 until 1990 and emeritus professor from 1990. She also served (1979–88) as director of the Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences.
Burbidge returned briefly to England in 1972 on leave of absence to become director of the Royal Greenwich Observatory, now situated at Herstmonceux Castle in Sussex. She declared her aim to be to strengthen optical astronomy in Britain. But as the 98-inch (2.5-m) Isaac Newton telescope at Herstmonceux was only a few hundred feet above sea level and sited above a marsh her opportunities for observation at the Royal Observatory were somewhat limited. A little over a year later, in October 1973, Burbidge resigned amid much speculation declaring simply that she preferred “to return to her own research work rather than devote a major part of her time to administrative matters.”
In 1948 she married Geoffrey Burbidge a theoretical physicist, and began a highly productive partnership. They collaborated with Fred Hoyle and William Fowler in 1957 in publishing a key paper on the synthesis of the chemical elements in stars. They also produced one of the first comprehensive works on quasars in theirQuasi-Stellar Objects (1967). She had earlier recorded the spectra of a number of quasars with the 120-inch (3-m) Lick reflector and discovered that their spectral lines displayed different red shifts, probably indicating the ejection of matter at very high speeds.
The first accurate estimates of the masses of galaxies were based on Margaret Burbidge's careful observation of their rotation.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • Burbidge, (Eleanor) Margaret — orig. Eleanor Margaret Peachey born Aug. 12, 1919, Davenport, Cheshire, Eng. English astronomer. She served as acting director (1950–51) of the Observatory of the University of London. In 1955 her husband, Geoffrey Burbidge (b. 1925), became a… …   Universalium

  • Burbidge, (Eleanor) Margaret — orig. Eleanor Margaret Peachey (n. 12 ago. 1919, Davenport, Cheshire, Inglaterra). Astrónoma inglesa. Sirvió como directora interina (1950–51) del observatorio de la Universidad de Londres. En 1955, su esposo Geoffrey Burbidge (n. 1925), asumió… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Burbidge, (Eleanor)Margaret — Bur·bidge (bûrʹbĭj), (Eleanor) Margaret. Born 1919. British born American astronomer known for her work on quasars and the composition of the interior of the stars. She was director of the Royal Greenwich Observatory (1972 1973). * * * …   Universalium

  • Margaret — /mahr geuh rit, grit/, n. a female given name: from a Greek word meaning pearl. * * * (as used in expressions) Frances Margaret Anderson Edith Margaret Emily Ashcroft Atwood Margaret Eleanor Bourke White Margaret Brent Margaret Margaret Tobin… …   Universalium

  • Margaret — (as used in expressions) Edith Margaret Emily Ashcroft Atwood, Margaret (Eleanor) Bourke White, Margaret Brent, Margaret Margaret Tobin Burbidge, (Eleanor) Margaret Eleanor Margaret Peachey Cameron, Julia Margaret Court, Margaret Smith Margaret… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Eleanor — /el euh neuhr, nawr /, n. a female given name, form of Helen. Also, Eleanora /el ee euh nawr euh, nohr euh/. * * * (as used in expressions) Atwood Margaret Eleanor Burbidge Eleanor Margaret Eleanor Margaret Peachey Eleanor of Aquitaine Eleanor of …   Universalium

  • Eleanor — (as used in expressions) Atwood, Margaret (Eleanor) Burbidge, (Eleanor) Margaret Eleanor Margaret Peachey Gibson, Eleanor J(ack) Eleanor Jack Glueck, Sheldon y Glueck, Eleanor Eleanor Touroff Roosevelt, (Anna) Eleanor …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Margaret Burbidge — Eleanor Margaret Burbidge, née Peachey, FRS (born August 12, 1919 in Davenport) is a British born American astrophysicist, noted for original research and holding many administrative posts, including director of the Royal Greenwich Observatory.… …   Wikipedia

  • Margaret Burbidge — (née Eleanor Margaret Peachey le 12 août 1919) est une astrophysicienne britannique, connue pour ses recherches inédites et pour avoir occupé plusieurs postes administratifs, dont celui de directrice de l observatoire royal de Greenwich. Durant… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Margaret Burbidge — (geb. Eleanor Margaret Peachey) (* 12. August 1919) ist eine britische Astrophysikerin, bekannt durch ihre Forschungsarbeiten wie ihre Verwaltungsposten, z. B. Direktorin der Royal Greenwich Observatory. Sie war mit dem Astrophysiker… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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