Bloch , Felix

Bloch , Felix
(1905–1983) Swiss–American physicist
Bloch was born in Zürich, Switzerland, and educated at the Federal Institute of Technology there and at the University of Leipzig, where he obtained his PhD in 1928. He taught briefly in Germany and in 1933 moved to America, via various institutions in Italy, Denmark, and Holland. In 1934 he joined the Stanford staff, remaining there until his retirement in 1971 and serving from 1936 onward as professor of physics. He also served briefly (1954–55) as first director of the international laboratory for high-energy physics in Geneva, known as CERN.
In 1946, Bloch and Edward Purcell independently introduced the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). This utilizes the magnetic property of a nucleus, which will interact with an applied magnetic field such that it takes certain orientations in the field (a quantum mechanical effect known as space quantization). The different orientations have slightly different energies and a nucleus can change from one state to another by absorbing a photon of electromagnetic radiation (in the radiofrequency region of the spectrum). The technique was used initially to determine the magnetic moment (i.e. the torque felt by a magnet in a magnetic field at right angles to it) of the proton and of the neutron. It has since, however, been developed into a powerful tool for the analysis of the more complex molecules of organic chemistry. The energy states of the nucleus are affected slightly by the surrounding electrons, and the precise frequency at which a nucleus absorbs depends on its position in the molecule. In 1952 Bloch shared the Nobel Prize for physics with Purcell for this work on NMR.
Bloch worked extensively in the field of solid-state physics developing a detailed theory of the behavior of electrons in crystals and revealing much about the properties of ferromagnetic domains.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • BLOCH, FELIX — (1905–1983), U.S. physicist and Nobel Prize laureate. Bloch was born in Zurich. He studied first at the Federal Institute of Technology, where his interest in physics developed and he received his Ph.D. in theoretical physics under Heisenberg s… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Bloch, Felix — born Oct. 23, 1905, Zürich, Switz. died Sept. 10, 1983, Zürich Swiss born U.S. physicist. He emigrated to the U.S. in 1933 and taught at Stanford University (1934–71). He worked on atomic energy at Los Alamos and on radar countermeasures at… …   Universalium

  • Bloch, Felix — (1905–1983)    US physicist and Nobel laureate, 1952. Born in Switzerland, Bloch graduated from the University of Leipzig in 1928 and worked with such renowned scientists as Carl Heisenberg, Niels BOHR and Enrico Fermi. During these years he made …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Bloch, Felix — (1905 83)    Swiss American physicist. Born in Zurich, he studied engineering at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. With the rise of Hitler, he settled in the US and took up a position at Stanford University. During World War II he was… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Bloch, Felix — ► (1905 83) Físico suizo. Fue premio Nobel de Física en 1952, compartido con E. M. Purcell, por el descubrimiento del método de las resonancias nucleares para el estudio del núcleo atómico. * * * (23 oct. 1905, Zurich, Suiza–10 sep. 1983, Zurich) …   Enciclopedia Universal

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  • Bloch-Sphäre — Bloch Kugel Die Bloch Kugel wird in der Quantenmechanik verwendet, um Zustände von Qubits grafisch darzustellen. Benannt wurde sie nach dem Physiker Felix Bloch, der diese übersichtliche Illustration für Überlagerungen von Zuständen entwickelte.… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • BLOCH (F.) — BLOCH FELIX (1905 1983) Physicien suisse, naturalisé américain (1939), professeur à l’université de Stanford (Ca.), prix Nobel de physique (avec E. M. Purcell, 1952), Bloch a effectué de nombreux travaux théoriques et parfois expérimentaux, en… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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