Tonegawa , Susumu

Tonegawa , Susumu
(1939–) Japanese immunologist
Tonegawa was born at Nagoya in Japan and educated at Kyoto University and the University of California, San Diego. He worked at the Basle Institute for Immunology from 1971 and in 1981 was appointed professor of biology at the Center for Cancer Research and Department of Biology of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Working at Basle in collaboration with Niels Jerne and Nobumichi Hozumi, Tonegawa revealed how the immune system is capable of generating the enormous diversity of antibodies required so that whatever the nature of the invading organism or ‘foreign’ tissue a suitable antibody is available to bind specifically to it. This implies that the immune system's antibody-producing cells – the B-lymphocytes – can potentially manufacture billions of different antibodies; yet, even in humans, these cells carry only about 100,000 genes on their chromosomes.
Working with mouse cells, Tonegawa showed that during the development of the antibody-producing cell, the genes coding for antibody are shuffled at random, so that in the mature cell a cluster of functional genes is formed specific to that cell. Each individual mature cell thus produces its own specific antibody. This potential diversity is amplified by the fact that each antibody molecule comprises four protein chains, all with a highly variable terminal region. Hence the diversity of antibodies is a consequence of the huge numbers of lymphocytes present in the body, each with its own combination of functional antibody-producing genes. In recognition of the significance of his discovery Tonegawa was awarded the 1987 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • Tonegawa Susumu — (jap. 利根川 進 Tonegawa Susumu, * 6. September 1939 in Nagoya) ist ein japanischer Molekularbiologe und Immunologe. Er erhielt 1981 den Asahi Preis und den Avery Landsteiner Preis, 1983 einen Gairdner Foundation International Award, 1986 den Robert… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Tonegawa Susumu — ▪ Japanese biologist born Sept. 5, 1939, Nagoya, Japan       Japanese molecular biologist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1987 for his discovery of the genetic mechanisms underlying the great diversity of antibodies… …   Universalium

  • Tonegawa, Susumu — ► (n. 1939) Científico japonés. Fue premio Nobel de Medicina y Fisiología en 1987 por sus investigaciones sobre el sistema inmunitario del ser humano y por sus estudios sobre la fabricación de anticuerpos por el organismo …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Tonegawa Susumu — noun Japanese molecular biologist noted for his studies of how the immune system produces antibodies (born in 1939) • Instance Hypernyms: ↑molecular biologist …   Useful english dictionary

  • Tonegawa — Tonegawa, Susumu …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Susumu Tonegawa — Tonegawa Susumu (jap. 利根川 進 Tonegawa Susumu, * 6. September 1939 in Nagoya) ist ein japanischer Molekularbiologe und Immunologe. Er erhielt 1986 den Robert Koch Preis und 1987 den Nobelpreis für Medizin für die Entdeckung der genetischen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Susumu Tonegawa — (利根川 進 Tonegawa Susumu, né à Nagoya au Japon, le 6 septembre 1939) est un savant japonais qui a obtenu le Prix Nobel de physiologie ou médecine en 1987 pour « sa découverte du principe génétique de la génération de la diversité des anticorps …   Wikipédia en Français

  • TONEGAWA S. — TONEGAWA S. TONEGAWA SUSUMU (1939 ) Immunogénéticien, Tonegawa est l’exemple le plus accompli de ce nouveau type de chercheurs que le second conflit mondial a fait éclore. Né à Nagoya, au Japon, il a travaillé dans son pays d’origine, à Kyot 拏,… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Tonegawa — Tonegawa,   Susumu, japanischer Molekularbiologe, * Nagoya 5. 9. 1939; seit 1981 Professor am Krebsforschungsinstitut des MIT; erhielt 1987 den Nobelpreis für Physiologie oder Medizin für die Erforschung der genetischen Grundlagen der… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Susumu Tonegawa — Infobox Scientist name =Susumu Tonegawa box width = image width =150px caption = Susumu Tonegawa birth date = birth date and age|1939|09|06 birth place = Nagoya, Japan death date = death place = residence = citizenship = nationality = Japan… …   Wikipedia

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