Moseley , Henry Gwyn Jeffreys

Moseley , Henry Gwyn Jeffreys
(1887–1915) British physicist
Moseley came from an academic family in Weymouth. He graduated in natural sciences from Oxford University in 1910 and then joined Ernest Rutherford at Manchester University to work on radioactivity, although he soon turned his attention to x-ray spectroscopy. He returned to Oxford in 1913 to continue his work under J.S.E. Townsend.
When x-rays are produced by an element a continuous spectrum is emitted together with a more powerful radiation of a few specific wavelengths characteristic of the element. To investigate the positive charge on atomic nuclei Moseley examined these characteristic spectral lines using crystal diffraction. For a number of elements, he discovered a regular shift in the lines with increasing atomic weight. From this he determined for each element an integer approximately proportional to the square root of the frequency of one of its spectral lines. This integer, now called the atomic number (or proton number), equaled the positive charge on the atomic nuclei. Moseley's work led to major improvements in Dmitri Mendeleev's periodic table and enabled elements to be classified in a new and more satisfactory manner.
At the outbreak of World War I Moseley enlisted in the army and was commissioned in the Royal Engineers. His death, from a sniper's bullet at Gallipoli, cut short what promised to be a most brilliant career in science.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • Moseley,Henry Gwyn Jeffreys — Mose·ley (mōzʹlē), Henry Gwyn Jeffreys. 1887 1915. British physicist who determined that the atomic number of an element can be deduced from the element s x ray spectrum. * * * …   Universalium

  • Moseley, Henry Gwyn Jeffreys — ▪ British physicist born Nov. 23, 1887, Weymouth, Dorset, Eng. died Aug. 10, 1915, Gallipoli, Tur.       English physicist who experimentally demonstrated that the major properties of an element are determined by the atomic number, not by the… …   Universalium

  • Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley — Henry Moseley Henry Moseley Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley est un physicien britannique né le 23 novembre 1887 et décédé le 10 août 1915. Son père était le naturaliste Henry Nottidge Moseley. L ordre des éléments dans le tableau périodique a été… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Moseley, Henry Gwyn Jeffreys — ► (1887 1915) Físico británico. Estudió los espectros de difracción de rayos X. Utilizó sucesivamente cuarenta y dos elementos como blancos, sobre los que chocaban los electrones emitidos por el cátodo del tubo de vacío. Recogió su… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley — n. Henry Moseley (1887 1915), British physicist who deduced that the atomic number (number of protons within a nucleus) of an element can be determined from the element s x ray spectrum …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Moseley — Henry Gwyn Jeffreys …   Scientists

  • Moseley — Moseley, Henry Gwyn Jeffreys …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • John Gwyn Jeffreys — (18 January 1809 ndash;21 January 1885) was a British conchologist and malacologist.He was born in Swansea into a propertied Welsh family. He went to London to qualify as a barrister, which he did. His greater passion however was for conchology.… …   Wikipedia

  • Henry Moseley — Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley (* 23. November 1887 in Weymouth, England; † 10. August 1915 in Gallipoli, Türkei) war ein britischer Physiker. Sein wichtigster wissenschaftlicher Beitrag war der Beweis der Richtigkeit des Konzeptes der Or …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • MOSELEY (H. G.-J.) — MOSELEY HENRY GWYN JEFFREYS (1887 1915) Physicien britannique, né à Weymouth, dans le Dorset, qui a démontré expérimentalement (par l’analyse des spectres de rayons X) que les propriétés physiques et chimiques des éléments sont déterminées par le …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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